By Maurice Casey
In the US for the previous couple of a long time, Q discussions in the US were principally framed via students like Robinson, Kloppenborg, Mack and Crossan. of their works, those students declare, with a shocking volume of self assurance, to understand many stuff concerning the beginning, improvement, style, personality, volume and goal of Q. hence, many some distance attaining conclusions were asserted with reference to Christian origins and the ancient Jesus. yet fact learn, lots of those conclusions were outfitted on little greater than hypothesis and methodological difficulties are by no means tough to observe.
Let me attempt to summarize in brief the conclusions which have been drawn by way of some of the fogeys writing books approximately Q who've established their works at the above-mentioned students. it truly is usually assumed (and sometimes argued) that Q used to be a unmarried Greek rfile, or that it may be accurately labeled in line with genera (e.g. "sayings of the wise") or that Q and the "community" answerable for it may be particularly linked to old Cynicism. Early Christianity, we're informed, started with a bunch of itinerant Cynics who loved to discuss nature and who loved being a stick within the eye of traditionalism (earliest strata of Q). Afterwards, it developed into an eschatologically-oriented staff with a lot nearer ties to Judaism (later strata of Q). Then, with the composition of Mark's Gospel and with the stratified Q's eventual enshrinement within the Gospel's of Matthew and Luke the origian Q was once misplaced and all yet forgotten ... till fresh students recovered it and defined to us what all of it means.
Kloppenborg's stratification conception and Downing's, Vaage's, Crossan's and Mack's claims approximately Jesus being a "Cynic sage" have supplied well known authors with fodder for all types of ridiculous ancient reconstructions concerning the lifetime of Jesus and early Christianity. In his personal historic comic strip of Q study Casey runs in the course of the scholarship major as much as our unhappy present scenario in Q scholarship, targeting males like Toedt, Luehrman and Kloppenborg, exhibiting how their methodologies have been very unsound and feature been authorized all-too-uncritically. Casey complains of ways Q examine has develop into "beaurocratized", wherein he implies that students frequently depend upon one another's past arguments instead of own examinations of the first resource fabric (e.g. the new discoveries at Qumran). He additionally issues to the best way arguments for Q contain loads of question-begging innovations. for instance, the arguments Kloppenborg makes use of to teach how Luke or Matthew displaced yes sayings inside Q may well simply as simply be taken to teach that those sayings initially existed independently and weren't extracted from an latest rfile (at least now not one with its personal significant association) after which rearranged based on the redactor's theological programme.
Casey's criticisms on fresh Q scholarship might on my own make the booklet worthy paying for given that solid criticisms like his are going almost unheard within the ruckus of all of the sensationalist principles being proposed those days.
Casey additionally, fairly suddenly, criticizes some of the early Aramaic ways to the Gospels, even Matthew Black's extraordinary paintings. i discovered his comments right here insightful and a hallmark of his personal reflective and significant brain.
Casey's thesis is that a minimum of a few of Q used to be initially preserved in Aramaic, now not Greek. additionally, it was once now not a united composition, yet could have existed as a number of self sufficient sayings. The translated Greek Q existed in no less than translations earlier than Matthew and Luke obtained to it and those distinct translations are detectable and partly recoverable by way of retroverting the texts into Aramaic - the language within which they have been initially preserved and which Jesus probably knew and spoke.
Casey additionally demanding situations the common assumption that Q contained not anything greater than what Matthew and Luke now carry in universal. for instance, it is usually characterised as a "sayings resource" because it comprises only a few narratives. yet this declare is determined by a slightly complicated view of stratification. because it comes right down to us, Q contained a number of narratives (e.g. tales approximately John the Baptist, Christ's temptation, the therapeutic of the centurion's servant, Peter's leaving the scene and weeping bitterly after his three-fold denial, the query posed to Christ, "Who is he that struck you?").
One challenge i've got with Casey is his approach to demonstrating the Aramaic Vorlage at the back of Q: he attempts to teach how Matthew or Luke can have misinterpret or misinterpreted definite Aramaic phrases. i am not confident any of those arguments rather carry up.
Still, the booklet comes as a refresher to me because i have learn numerous books in this subject now and they have frequently been from a similar viewpoint. This e-book deals a unique examine issues and that i imagine offers a few strong foodstuff for idea. A extra entire ebook on Q that i would suggest is "Q and Early Christianity" by means of Christopher Tuckett. Richard Horsley has additionally written a few reliable reviews of Kloppenborg. For a very good critique of the Cynic speculation, Craig Evans has a very good bankruptcy in his e-book "Fabricating Jesus." it is a really easy learn too, in contrast to this publication through Casey.
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Extra info for An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series)
Petersen, Tatian’s Diatessaron. S XXV. Leiden, 1994). For critical discussion of two of Quispel’s suggestions, see T. ’, NT 37, 1995, 285–300. 121 See further A. Guillaumont, ‘Les s´ emitismes dans l‘´evangile selon Thomas. Essai de classement’, in R. van den Broek and M. J. ), Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic Religions presented to Gilles Quispel on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday (Leiden, 1981), pp. 190–204. 122 H. Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels. Their History and Development (London and Philadelphia, 1990), pp.
Secondly, Kloppenborg again presupposes that he must discuss his result, Q as a single Greek document. The demonstrable point is that Luke had a source which contained a genuine saying of Jesus. How long it was, whether it was in many respects like Mark’s account, and how much of it was known to Matthew, we have no idea. This is accordingly important evidence for a more chaotic model of Q than Kloppenborg ever faces up to. This is even more unsatisfactory with the two runs of ﬁve words which Matthew and Luke have in common.
114 This is not the case. The proposed equation is quite absent from the text, and light is too common a symbol to call up wisdom particularly. Moreover there is no parallel to this kind of saying in Q, notably not to the latter part, which does not call up the wisdom tradition either. Again, there is something to be said for Davies’ view that the Gospel of Thomas is not really Gnostic. Most notably, speciﬁc notions of the creation of the world by the Demiurge and a mythology of syzygies are absent from this Gospel.
An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series) by Maurice Casey